Immunoglobulin disorders and the oral cavity : a narrative review


The oral mucosa is a mechanical barrier against the penetration and colonization of microorganisms. Oral homeostasis is maintained by congenital and adaptive systems in conjunction with normal oral flora and an intact oral mucosa. Components contributing to the defense of the oral cavity include the salivary glands, innate antimicrobial proteins of saliva, plasma proteins, circulating white blood cells, keratinocyte products of the oral mucosa, and gingival crevicular fluid. General disturbances in the level of immunoglobulins in the human body may be manifested as pathological lesions in the oral mucosa. Symptoms of immunoglobulin-related general diseases such as mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD), Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita (EBA), and Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) may appear in the oral cavity. In this review, authors present selected diseases associated with immunoglobulins in which the lesions appear in the oral cavity. Early detection and treatment of autoimmune diseases, sometimes showing a severe evolution (e.g., PV), allow the control of their dissemination and involvement of skin or other body organs. Immunoglobulin disorders with oral manifestations are not common, but knowledge, differentiation and diagnosis are essential for proper treatment.