Physiology, diagnosis and treatment of cardiac light chain amyloidosis


AL (light-chain) amyloidosis is a systemic disease in which amyloid fibers are formed from kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains, or fragments thereof, produced by a neoplastic clone of plasmocytes. The produced protein is deposited in tissues and organs in the form of extracellular deposits, which leads to impairment of their functions and, consequently, to death. Despite the development of research on pathogenesis and therapy, the mortality rate of patients with late diagnosed amyloidosis is 30%. The diagnosis is delayed due to the complex clinical picture and the slow progression of the disease. This is the type of amyloidosis that most often contributes to cardiac lesions and causes cardiac amyloidosis (CA). Early diagnosis and correct identification of the type of amyloid plays a crucial role in the planning and effectiveness of therapy. In addition to standard histological studies based on Congo red staining, diagnostics are enriched by tests to determine the degree of cardiac involvement. In this paper, we discuss current diagnostic methods used in cardiac light chain amyloidosis and the latest therapies that contribute to an improved patient prognosis.

Data udostępnienia14 mar 2022, 13:24:59
Data mod.29 mar 2022, 08:07:24
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