Current research proves that immune dysregulation is a common feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and immune exhaustion is associated with increased disease mortality. Immune checkpoint molecules, including the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis, may serve as markers of disease severity. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in patients with COVID-19. Blood immunophenotypes of hospitalized patients with moderate (n = 17, requiring oxygen support) and severe (n = 35, requiring mechanical ventilation in the intensive care setting) COVID-19 were compared and associated with clinical, laboratory, and survival data. The associations between severity and lymphocyte profiles were analysed at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of in-hospital treatment. Forty patients without COVID-19 infection were used as controls. For PD-1-positive T and B lymphocyte subsets, notable increases were observed between controls and patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 for CD4+PD-1+ T cells, CD8+PD-1+ T and CD19+PD-1+ B cells. Similar trends were observed for PD-L1-positive lymphocytes, namely, CD4+PD-L1+ T cells, CD8+PD-L1+ T cells and CD19+PD-L1+ B cells. Importantly, all markers associated with PD-1 and PD-L1 were stable over time for the analysed time points in the moderate and severe COVID-19 groups. Increased abundances of PD-1+ and PD-L1+ lymphocytes were associated with disease severity and mortality and were stable over time in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. These immune exhaustion parameters may be attractive biomarkers of COVID-19 severity.
|Data udostępnienia||7 lis 2022, 14:42:39|
|Data mod.||7 lis 2022, 14:42:39|