The paper presents virophages, which, like their host, giant viruses, are “new” infectious agents whose role in nature, including mammalian health, is important. Virophages, along with their protozoan and algal hosts, are found in fresh inland waters and oceanic and marine waters, including thermal waters and deep-sea vents, as well as in soil, plants, and in humans and animals (ruminants). Representing “superparasitism”, almost all of the 39 described virophages (except Zamilon) interact negatively with giant viruses by affecting their replication and morphogenesis and their “adaptive immunity”. This causes them to become regulators and, at the same time, defenders of the host of giant viruses protozoa and algae, which are organisms that determine the homeostasis of the aquatic environment. They are classified in the family Lavidaviridae with two genus (Sputnikovirus, Mavirus). However, in 2023, a proposal was presented that they should form the class Maveriviricetes, with four orders and seven families. Their specific structure, including their microsatellite (SSR-Simple Sequence Repeats) and the CVV (cell—virus—virophage, or transpovirion) system described with them, as well as their function, makes them, together with the biological features of giant viruses, form the basis for discussing the existence of a fourth domain in addition to Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota. The paper also presents the hypothetical possibility of using them as a vector for vaccine antigens.
|Data udostępnienia||7 sie 2023, 07:58:33|
|Data mod.||7 sie 2023, 07:58:33|